I have been arguing that 'art' is a term given to particular practices that originated in Europe but are now found world-wide, practices not just of creation but also of display, exchange and collecting.
Paul is quite right. Although the Chinese developed silk fabric in 3500BC and although In ancient China, writing, as well as painting, was done on silk. and despite the fact that after the invention of paper in the 1st century CE, silk was gradually replaced by the new and cheaper material, none of the works rendered on paper or silk were displayed exchanged or collected, the Chinese Intelligentsia merely wiped their asses with the works between arguments about aesthetics.
art is a virus tangent:
艺术 yìshù = art
艺 yì = art; talent, ability; craft
术 shù = art, skill, special feat; method, technique
工艺 gōngyì = arts and crafts / industrial arts
工 gōng = labor, work; worker, laborer
艺 yì = art; talent, ability; craft
Key is the 'special feature' definition of '术 shù', in that the character is also used denoting unfathomable terms such as,
法术 fǎshù = magic
炼金术 liànjīnshù = alchemy
读心术 dúxīnshù = mind reading (in psychology or Western magic)
More interestingly though is that in ancient texts the term is represented by the characters "兿 yi"='planting' "埶 shù”='technique/ technology'.
Some scholars think that this "planting" refers to more than purely agricultural practices,
"the human spirit is the house planting the seeds of its experience/ value/ growth in technology."- Meaning in a week there will be a change in the form of a leap from the original state to a new state of consciousness. And so the original meaning of "planting" is taken to have developed into this extended meaning.
Only if some person or persons acting in behalf of a certain social institution has first conferred the attribute 'chillable' upon it. Then sure...
The refrigerator man understands what will chill.
The superior man understands what is right; the inferior man understands what will sell. (Confucius)
I am saying that art is an invention of the monolithic West that has become global.
Chinese art has a long history of varied styles and emphases. In ancient times philosophers were already arguing about aesthetics. Confucius emphasized the role of the arts and humanities (especially music and poetry) in broadening human nature and aiding “li” (etiquette, the rites) in bringing us back to what is essential about humanity. His opponent Mozi, however, argued that music and fine arts were classist and wasteful, benefiting the rich but not the common people.
By the 4th century A.D., artists were debating in writing over the proper goals of art as well. Gu Kaizhi has 3 surviving books on this theory of painting, for example, and it's not uncommon to find later artist/scholars who both create art and write about the creating of art. Religious and philosophical influence on art was common (and diverse) but never universal; it is easy to find art that largely ignores philosophy and religion in almost every Chinese time period.
Never fear though, bombs coming to NZ sometime soon. The best measure NZ could take to ensure the security at the RWC is stop fighting the wrong war for the wrong side. Makes for great news fodder though.
Maybe winning the cup could make up for losing the war. It must be a blow when your side takes yet another hit. That would be, if you were still feeling anything.
I haven't heard any formal announcement but I'm being redirected to Google Hongkong since yesterday morning both at work and at home.
absolute truth= 'Avatar' is just a bit of fun.
Relative to Wellington pharmacies, certainly the bed could do with a couple of extra blankets.