Access by Various artists

5

Part 5: The tide will turn if floater voters make enough waves

by Disabled Persons Assembly New Zealand

This is the last of the Disabled Persons Assembly’s (DPA’s) election blogs, and includes an overview of disabled people’s political participation, related questions for candidates, and a wrap up. 

For marginalised groups everywhere, increasing participation and achievement in political life usually precedes an increase in participation and achievement in economic and social life. Political tides turn when floater voters create waves and refuse to remain becalmed.

Over a quarter of New Zealand’s voting age population are disabled people, and yet we are extremely under-represented in Parliament, the ‘House of Representatives’. DPA eagerly awaits parties’ commitments to having disabled people as candidates high up on party lists.  ‘Nothing about us without us’ is an essential way of working on disability issues and inclusion, and it is a way to ensure that we leave no one behind in our society. 

In the past, parties entering coalition agreements have made gains for disabled people through law changes and resource commitments.

These were our questions:

What is your experience of disability or the disability community?

What will you do to ensure disabled people are better represented in the House of Representatives?

How will you and your party actively involve disabled people, including disabled children, in your work?

If you are elected, will you ensure your office and all meetings, information and communication are accessible to all your disabled constituents?

If your party negotiates a coalition deal, what of the DPA priority issues will you strongly negotiate on and advance?

Our comparative assessment on representational issues: the Greens do well on more issues.  The parliamentary Green Party, through Mojo Mathers, is the only one where disabled people are not invisible.

The Greens do better overall in DPA’s priority areas. However, the Greens' health policy, which supports legalised assisted dying, is a controversial topic in the disability community. The Greens appear to recognise the potentially serious consequences of legalising assisted dying for disabled people (and the potential flow-on effects on societal attitudes towards disabled people) and their policy promotes disability awareness to mitigate some of those concerns. While awareness raising is positive, some disabled voters may decide it is not enough and vote against the Greens solely on this issue.

ACT also has the legalisation of assisted dying as a priority, but do not appear to have given much consideration to its effect on attitudes towards disabled people.  This, and other bio-ethical issues such as selective ante-natal screening on the basis of disability, may over time increasingly shape floater voter choices.

The Māori Party have a great track record across most priority issues for a small party.  Labour has been a leader in the past, but in current policy rhetoric “encourage”  rather than “commit“ predominates and it suggests disabled people have dropped lower down their priority agenda.  National hasn’t given disabled people much priority in its last three terms, although there has been some good work done around preparing for disability support transformation. NZ First policies include a lot of promising rhetoric, but in government or opposition their focus has historically been limited to older disabled people.

On our assessment on the limited information available on parties’ policies on DPA’s priority issues, the Green, Māori, and Labour parties come out better overall, with NZ First next. Perhaps that’s a signal for disabled floater voters to disrupt the calm of the harbour, make the waves that generate a turning tide, with the current flowing centre left.

 –––

www.dpa.org.nz

 The Disabled Persons Assembly (DPA) is a pan-disability disabled people's organisation that works to realise an equitable society, where all disabled people are able to direct their own lives. DPA works to improve social indicators for disabled people and for disabled people to be recognised as valued members of society. DPA and its members work with the wider disability community, other DPOs, government agencies, service providers, international disability organisations, and the public by:

  • telling our stories and identifying systemic barriers
  • developing and advocating for solutions
  • celebrating innovation and good practice.
2

Disabled floater voters Part 4: Health and Support

by Disabled Persons Assembly New Zealand

This is the fourth of a series of blogs from the Disabled Persons Assembly (DPA).   We have used DPA’s strategic areas of focus, as identified by our members, as a guide to examine key areas of each party’s policies. We have then asked questions that we would like answered from political parties.

Mental health, and physical health and well-being

Our communities, schools, and workplaces do not always value or include disabled people as they do others, and this impacts on our mental wellbeing. New Zealand has high rates of suicide. This not only includes people with long-term mental illness, but people with other impairments. People with psychosocial disabilities, autism or learning disability may be subjected to seclusion and coercive or compulsory treatment. 

Disabled people die earlier and have poorer health outcomes because of factors that are not directly associated with their impairment or condition. For example, New Zealand’s Independent Monitoring Mechanism reports that women with learning disability die on average 23 years younger than other women. 

How would your party positively influence the mental wellbeing of disabled people?

When would your party end seclusion?

How would it move towards ending compulsory treatment?

How would it reduce suicide?

How would it improve the health and life expectancy of disabled people?

Our comparative assessment: Mental health and the high suicide rate are receiving attention, with Labour leading the debate.  More emphasis could be placed on people with long term mental illness and other impairment types, and their rights within the mental health system.  No one has committed to a date to end seclusion or given a suicide reduction target.

Support and Living in the Community

Disabled people want to live in their communities, in their cultural contexts, and with choice about their own lives and control of their supports. Families want to ensure disabled children have the best start in life.

Having flexible and comprehensive support has been more likely in New Zealand if a disabled person’s support is funded through ACC, as opposed to the Ministry of Health. For disabled people to be able to live in their communities and direct their own lives requires transforming systems, connecting with more disabled people and families earlier, and updating support systems which have been narrowly focused on meeting needs that someone else has assessed, within a very tight budget. Options for family paid care are unreasonably limited.

Are there any rights or choices open to non-disabled people that you would deny disabled people? 

How would your party ensure disabled people and families realise their rights and choices?  

Would you consider social insurance similar to ACC a funding option?

Our comparative assessment:  While the 1999-2008 Labour government delivered for disabled people with its role in the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities and the first New Zealand Disability Strategy, its review of long-term supports did not result in any reform, and there seems little further progress in Labour's current policy.

National came into power in 2008 on the tide of change of a Select Committee review of disability support, pointing to a need for substantial reform. The Māori Party has been the leader and innovator, initiating Enabling Good Lives (EGL), a progressive approach to support, choice and control. National have supported and continued EGL, with significant co-design and investment in preparing to roll out EGL across the MidCentral DHB region.

However, the pace of rollout could be improved through an investment in workforce development and ensuring adequate resourcing levels so that EGL can expand beyond the currently eligible group of disabled people. National here is an improvement on the previous Labour government's “review of long term supports” 

5

Disabled floater voters 3: Education and Justice

This is the third of a series of blogs from the Disabled Persons Assembly (DPA).   We have used DPA’s strategic areas of focus, as identified by our members, as a guide to examine key areas of each party’s policies. We have then asked questions that we would like answered from political parties.

Education

Many disabled children are not welcome in their local school, families have to battle to have their learning needs met and children may not achieve to their potential.  Many are excluded.  Many find it hard to make friends and most report being bullied. Disabled people are under-represented in tertiary education.

What will your party do to ensure disabled children are included and supported to achieve in their local schools and early childhood centres as of right? 

Would you work to ensure better school leadership and accountability, better teacher education and professional development, or more funding or other resources?

How would you ensure the school system is fully inclusive in the long term?

How would you support disabled people to achieve through tertiary education and through lifelong learning?

Our comparative assessment: the Green Party has done its homework on meeting the learning support needs of disabled students, and costed it.  Most other parties have differing levels of commitment to making education more inclusive.  To solve systemic issues, the system needs mechanisms to identify, quantify and respond to disabled students’ needs; and to measure progress and comparative achievement with their peers. 

Justice

Many disabled people are denied their legal capacity and their right to make their own decisions with support, including as they become older, if they have a learning disability or head injury, or if they are in the mental health system.  Many are victims of violence and abuse, including historic abuse in state care, and in the community today.

The justice system, family courts, Police, and other agencies are not trained to treat all disabled people fairly, as family members, victims, witnesses, or alleged perpetrators.  People with neuro-disabilities are the majority entering the youth justice system, they, and people with mental illness, make up the majority of all people in the criminal justice system.

What would your party do to ensure disabled people have the right to make their own decisions with the support they may choose? 

How would you reduce violence and abuse against disabled people? 

Will you hold an inquiry into historic abuse, apologise, and learn from it?

How would you reduce the number of disabled people in the youth and criminal justice systems?

Our comparative assessment: no party is strong on changes to rights and capacity laws and ensuring all disabled people’s right to make their own decisions with support.  Some are listening on the need for police training.  The OpportunitIes Party leads in promoting stronger civics and rights education.  On the positive side, all parties except National support an inquiry into and learning from the historic abuse of disabled people.

6

Disabled floater voters: Employment and Income

by Disabled Persons Assembly New Zealand

This is the second of a series of blogs from the Disabled Persons Assembly (DPA).  We have used DPA’s strategic areas of focus, as identified by our members, as a guide to examine key areas of each party’s policies. We have then asked questions that we would like answered from political parties.

Employment

Disabled people report wanting to work, but are less likely to be employed than others, and are on average on a lower wage, sometimes below minimum wage.  Barriers to work include limited accessibility of buildings, transport, information, communication, and employers’ perceptions of costs, and not recognising employee’s capabilities including meeting the needs of the diversity of potential customers.

What will your party do to ensure disabled people have increased opportunities and no barriers to getting a job and developing a career?  

Would you support broad accessibility legislation to enable increased employment of disabled people?

Would your party invest more in disabled people, recognising there are huge gains for employers and the economy as a whole if barriers to participation were removed?

Our comparative assessment: the recently released statistics from government state disabled people are more than twice as likely to be unemployed as others, and a third as likely to be employed. Initial evaluation of social investment found disabled people were not getting off benefits and into work. Access legislation to aid employment is supported by Labour, Greens, Maori Party, and possibly NZ First.  National established Project 300, initially in Christchurch, where more than 500 people found training or employment, and this will be rolled out beyond Christchurch.  Apart from this, commitments and targets are not strong across political parties.

Income

Many disabled people and their families  have additional costs that are not met and have time commitments that reduce opportunities to earn. Disabled people spend longer times on a benefit, sometimes a lifetime.   Many do not receive what they may be entitled to.  Sometimes people are forced to make hard choices, for example between food and going to the doctor.

What will your party do to ensure disabled people, including families with disabled children, have an adequate standard of living and do not live in poverty?

Our comparative assessment: This week’s news is disabled people earn on average half as much as others.  “Love has consequences”, said a National candidate to a disability forum defending benefit reductions to disabled partners with ongoing high disability-related costs. Lack of love might have consequences at the ballot box for less lovable parties.  NZ First has the best track record on leading the debate on superannuation and older disabled people’s income.  Mana and Green are strongest on ending poverty.

9

Is the tide turning for disabled floater voters – or are we becalmed?

by Disabled Persons Assembly New Zealand

Disabled people are more than a quarter of the voting age population.  Our families and allies make an even bigger block.  At least 30% of us are open to changing our vote, so that’s at least 13 seats of disabled “floater voters” who can turn the political tide.  We will determine the next government.

Political parties in Australia have realised the scale of the disability vote, and the need to not leave disabled people behind in their policy agendas. In the last decade the biggest funding and legislation change issue has been a commitment to $8-9 billion increased investment to transform the disability support system there.  All major parties have moved to support this, despite concerns about its implementation. 

In Aotearoa New Zealand, we have begun co-designing a new support system, and while we recognise the implementation problems in Australia, we have concerns about the lack of funding here compared to there.

In the NZ news headlines, apart from the increasing political profile of mental health issues, some recognition of the historic abuse of disabled people, and poorly handled bioethical issues that may impact on the lives of disabled people without our perspectives being sought, we are hearing mostly words of encouragement and empathy – and not much concrete resource commitment or legislative change. You wouldn’t recognise that this nation led the world in the development of the United Nations disability convention and has committed to its implementation. 

We have used the Disabled Person’s Assembly’s (DPA) strategic areas of focus, as identified by our members, as a guide to examine key areas of each party’s policies. We have then asked questions that we would like answered from political parties.

The blogs over the next few days, and strategic areas of focus are 

1. Introduction and housing

2. Work and  income

3. Education and Justice

4. Mental and general health, and support  and living in the community

5. Overall rating of political parties

–––

1. Housing

Many disabled people aspire to own their own homes, and many require rental or social housing.  There are not enough accessible houses for disabled people today, and with an aging population the gap is growing. 

Many can’t stay with friends and family because their houses are not visitable, meaning that they lack accessible entrances and basic ground level facilities, including an accessible bathroom and a bedroom.

More disabled people than others live in cold damp rentals, and many have long term health conditions and have an increased need for warm dry housing.

Many disabled people are discriminated against when seeking to privately rent.  ‘No pets’ policies conflict with the need for assistance animals.  Stable rentals  are required to build community connections and networks, and stability is a criteria for Government-funded modifications. Many older people, as they acquire impairments, move from their home to an aged-care facility as their home may not meet their changing needs.  Many disabled people experience housing deprivation and some sleep rough.

• What would your party do to ensure enough housing is accessible, warm, safe, and affordable to disabled people of all ages now, and in the future?? 

• Why can’t all new builds, terrain permitting, be at least visitable, and what proportion should be fully accessible? 

• Can accessibility be included in a rental’s standards, such as a “Warrant of Fitness? 

• How will you deal with homelessness?

Our comparative assessment: It's good to see increasing support for warm, dry homes, but more recognition is needed of disabled people’s needs here, including ending disabled people’s homelessness and ensuring the future accessible housing stock matches the needs of an ageing society.  Green best, then Labour, and Maori Party.